Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia pneumoniae Immunoglobulin G in Early and Late Onset Preeclampsia
Background: Preeclampsia is one of the complexities of maternal and neonatal health. The relation between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cytomegalovirus infections with atherosclerosis has been shown previously.
Objective: To evaluate the role of rising titer of cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG in pathogenesis and timing of onset of preeclampsia.
Methods: A case-control study carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital (Baghdad-Iraq) for one year from the 1st of October 2014 to the 30th of September 2015. The study included 120 pregnant women who were divided into: study group that subdivided into early onset preeclampsia (group I): included 30 singleton pregnant women presented with clinical onset of preeclampsia 28-33+6 weeks gestation and late onset preeclampsia (group II): included 30 singleton pregnant women presented with clinical onset of preeclampsia ≥ 34 weeks gestation. Other sixty healthy non complicated term pregnant women considered as control group (group III). Blood samples were taken from all groups and measurement of serum cytomegalovirus and C. pneumoniae IgG levels were done by electrochemilumin- escence immunoassay (ECLIA) and Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbant Assay (ELISA) analysers, respectively.
Results: The results revealed that women with early onset preeclampsia had the highest median level for cytomegalovirus 42.12 U/ml while it was 23.45U/ml for women with late onset preeclampsia and 27.12U/ml for healthy non-complicated term pregnant women. These differences were found to be significant (p=0.002). Also, showed that women with early onset preeclampsia had the highest median level for Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG 0.3 U/ml in comparison to 0.09U/ml for women with late onset preeclampsia and 0.19U/ml for healthy non complicated term pregnant women, these differences also found to be significant (p=0.001).
Conclusions: This study had shown that cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG titer was higher in early onset preeclampsia than in late onset preeclampsia and healthy non-complicated term pregnancy. This significant increment was directly correlated with the timing of onset of preeclampsia. Keywords: Preeclampsia, Cytomegalovirus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Early onset preeclampsia, Late onset preeclampsia. Iraqi Medical Journal Vol. 65, No. 2, July 2019; p.137-142
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