Assessment of Risk Factors among Stroke Patients
ABSTRACT Background: Stroke is the leading cause of disability. It is the third commonest cause of death beyond coronary heart disease and cancer. It has a huge impact on public health worldwide. The worldwide estimate of five million stroke-related deaths has been predicted to be double because of the expected major demographic and lifestyle changes, including increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Objectives: Assessment of risk factors among stroke patients by clinical, echocardiographic examinations, brain CT scanning and carotids Duplex, with evaluation of modifiable risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional case series study was carried out on any patients from both gender aged >25 years who were complaining from weakness, aphasia or disturbed level of consciousness, clinically diagnosed as stroke and admitted to the medical ward of AlImam Ali hospital from 1st of January 2017 to 30th of September 2017. Informative and detailed history was obtained concerning the presence of risk factors, and essential demographic data. General, cardiological, and neurological examinations was done by physicians, in addition to brain CT-scanning and Carotids Duplex were performed.
Results: A total of 50 patients, 27(54%) male and 23(46%) female were enrolled in this study. Ischemic stroke was found in 27 patients (54%), hemorrhagic stroke was found in two patients (4%), and 21 patients (42%) considered clinically as ischemic stroke. Hypertension was found in (32) patients (64%). Diabetes mellitus was found in 19 patients (38%), smoking was reported in 19 patients (38%). Cardiovascular diseases including heart failure was found in 11 patients (22%) and atrial fibrillation was found in three patients (6%). Carotid artery stenosis was found in 20 patients (62.5%) with hypertension, 11 (91.7%) of 12 patients with history of previous stroke, and in all patients with atrial fibrillation.
Conclusions: Stroke affects late adulthood with a mean age ±SD of 59 ±107 years for male and 62 ±15 years for female. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking were the most common risk factors for stroke. Patients with history of previous stroke were at risk also for developing new one. People with multiple risk factors are more prone to develop stroke. In addition, carotid artery stenosis founded in most of patients with history of previous stroke.
Keywords: Stroke, Risk factors, Atrial fibrillation, Intracranial hemorrhage, Coronary disease, Brain ischemia. Iraqi Medical Journal Vol. 65, No. 2, July 2019; p.113-119.
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