Neonatal and Placental Birth Weight and Its Correlation with Leptin level in Maternal and Cord Blood
Background: Leptin, the product of the obese gene, is a hormone that is synthesized by the adipocytes and secreted into the circulation. It regulates body weight, energy intake, and has a role in growth of fetus and placenta.
Objective: To investigate the correlation between maternal and cord blood leptin levels with neonatal body mass index and placental weight.Â Â
Methods: This is a prospective cohort study, carried out at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from March 2015 to January 2016. It included one hundred pregnant women from Baghdad who gave birth to equal number of full term infants. The leptin level was measured in mothers and cords blood serum and correlated its values with maternal BMI, neonatal weight and placental weight.
Results: Mean maternal leptin showed a statistically significant difference in comparison to cord serum leptin (18.01 and 8.89ng/ml, respectively) and was positively correlated to the maternal BMI, but not to the neonatal weight. A positive correlation between the mean cord serum leptin and the weight of the neonates (r = 0.336, P = 0.001) was found. There was no correlation between the maternal BMI and the neonatal weight. Similarly, no correlation established between the placental weight and the levels of leptin in the maternal or in the cord serum but a positive correlation between placental weight and neonatal weight, and mothersâ€™ BMI was observed. Finally, although a noteworthy difference between the mean leptin levels of neonates of two different sexes was observed (male 8.6ng/ml, female 9.16ng/ml), that difference couldnâ€™t reached a statistically significant level.
Conclusion: There is no correlation between maternal leptin level and fetal weight. A positive correlation between cord serum leptin and fetus weight was observed.
Keywords: Maternal leptin, Cord blood leptin, Neonatal and placental weight.Iraqi Medical Journal Vol. 63, No. 1, January 2017; p.97-104.
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