Association between Obesity and Osteoporosis Dhaher JS Al-Habbo* FRCP, Ismail D Saeed* FRCP, Waleed AK Al-Obaidy** Dip. Rh
Background: Persons with high body mass index (BMI); in particular those with BMI at the range of obesity (≥ 30 Kg/M2) are protected from osteoporosis to some extent. Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disorder responsible for significant morbidities and mortalities, essentially in post-menopausal women.
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the body mass index and some other risk factors with osteoporosis and to define the cutoff point of body mass index at which the protective effect against osteoporosis/osteopenia will be defined.
Methods: A case-control and correlation study. It was conducted at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic and the Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry unit of Al-Jumhury Teaching Hospital in Nov.1st, 2011 through June 1st, 2012. Three hundreds and thirteen postmenopausal female patients whose ages ranged between (45-90) years including 100 with a body mass index of (18.5-24.9) as a control and 213 patients with a body mass index of ≥ 25 Kg/m2. The cases were randomly enrolled in the study. The patients and controls were subjected to clinical assessment, anthropometric measurements of length, weight, body mass index, the necessary related biochemical tests, and the Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) examination for the measurement of bone mineral density. Osteomalacia and secondary causes of osteopenia and osteoporosis were excluded. The physical activities, socioeconomic status, educational level and previous history of fracture were also recorded.
Results: The data of this study proved that there is a decrease in the percentage of osteoporosis as the body mass index increase with a high significant difference (P-value= 0.0001) as compared to that with normal body mass index patients. The body mass index of 25 Kg/m2 was defined as the cutoff point below which the incidence of osteoporosis will increase. The sedentary lifestyle with low physical activities, low educational level, history of previous fractures and low socioeconomic status were notice to be risk factors for the development of osteoporosis.
Conclusion: The body mass index at a level of ≥ 25 Kg/m2 has a protective effect on the bone mass, so that the percentage of osteoporosis/osteopenia clearly declines at such level.
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