Triple Assessment of Breast Lumps The Efficacy for the Detection of Breast Cancer Disease in Iraqi Females

  • Muraba Co.


Background: Breast is the most site-specific cancer in women; it is the leading cause of
death from cancer in women aged 20-59 years. It account for 26% of all newly diagnosed
cancer in women and responsible for 15% of cancer related death in women.
Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of triple assessment {Clinical examination (C/E),
imaging technique and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)} of breast lumps for the
detection of breast cancer disease in Iraqi females presenting to the breast clinic and
apply the results obtained in the proper management of breast pathology.
Methods: A case series study carried out at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital during the
period from 1st July 2011 to 31st December 2012, in which a selected sample of 156
patients was studied. The study includes female patients that attend the breast clinic in Al-
Yarmouk Teaching Hospital and were followed to have the last conclusive results of
Result: There were 117 (75%) benign lesions and 39 (25%) malignant lesions. The
sensitivity of C/E was 79.5% and specificity 89.7%, and that For U/S were 89.7% and
96.6%, and for Mammography were 87.2% and 95.7% respectively; while that of FNAC
were 92.3% and 98.3% respectively and the sensitivity of triple assessment was 94.9%
and specificity was 100%.
Conclusion: The triple assessment is a sensitive, specific, accurate, simple, easy, fast,
minimally invasive and a low-cost assessment system that can be applied in the initial
breast clinic visit reaching the diagnosis in comparison to the final diagnosis with the

How to Cite
CO., Muraba. Triple Assessment of Breast Lumps The Efficacy for the Detection of Breast Cancer Disease in Iraqi Females. Iraqi Medical Journal, [S.l.], p. 127-134, aug. 2017. ISSN 0304-4564. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 14 aug. 2018.

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