Screening for Hepatitis (HBs Ag) and Hepatitis C (HCV Ab) among Dialysis Children
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection account for a
substantial proportion of liver diseases worldwide. Because the two hepatotropic viruses
share same modes of transmission, co-infection with the two viruses is not uncommon.
Dialysis modality has been identified as a major risk factor for infection with hepatitis B
virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The prevalence of both infections in hemodialysis
and blood recipient patients is very high, although it varies among countries and among
hemodialysis units within the same country.
Objective: To detect the presence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV in sample of dialysis children,
to find out the most important risk factors, evaluate the knowledge about the two infections
in the selected sample, find out the effect of frequent blood transfusion or blood product
transfusion on the prevalence of hepatitis B and C.
Methods: In this study 80 blood sample in hemodialysis unit for children were collected
from Pediatric Central Teaching Hospital in Baghdad during the period from 1st January till
the 31st of March 2014. A questionnaire form had been used for data collection included:
age, sex, residence, times number of transfusion blood and blood product. The diagnosis
of HBV and HCV infection is largely based on examining, the presence of circulation
serological markers of HBs Ag and Anti-HCV Ab by using an Enzyme-linked
Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique.
Results: The result study included 34 (42.50%) total positive serological test represent 21
(26.25%) HBs Ag, 8 (10.0%) HCV Ab, 5 (6.25%), mixed (HBs Ag and HCV Ab) and
negative serological test 46 (57.5%) from total patient with hepatitis. The age group (at
birth -3 years) represent 16 (20.0%) more than other age group and the distribution of
HBs Ag patients according to the sex it was found that males 15 (18.7%) more than
females 6 (7.5%) also show the HBV are more in one time of blood transfusion which
represent 12 (46.2%).
Conclusions: Serological tests that gave most positive results between children with HBV
infection in the first three years of age especially in males more than females and received
one time of blood transfusions.
Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, (HBs Ag), (HCV Ab), Dialysis
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